In general, CNFs are produced by high-temperature catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) of carbon-containing gases over small transition metal (e.g. iron, nickel, and cobalt) nanoparticles (NPs) , , ,  and . Correspondingly, metal NPs can be located at the tips or in the bodies of CNFs, leading to the formation of metal–CNFs composite materials. Recently, we showed that Amrubicin CNFs were synthesized over supported metal catalysts derived from layered double hydroxides (LDHs)  and . LDHs with the general formula [M1−x2+Mx3+(OH)2]x+[Ax/n]n− · mH2O are known as a family of highly ordered two-dimensional layered materials  and , which consist of positively charged layers and negative anions in the interlayer. Therefore, well-dispersed metal catalysts may be formed by reducing calcined LDHs , ,  and . Currently, we have explored the generation and stabilization of highly dispersed nickel NPs via either the reduction of NiAl-LDH precursor supported on carbon nanotubes or in situ self-reduction of hybrid composite of NiAl-LDH and carbon  and .
Although a wide range of test conditions was used on these studies that makes the results more case-specific, manganese oxide (MnOx) was shown to be one of the active components for Hg0 oxidation. Notably, some studies have also shown that flue gas components, such as HCl, O2, SOx, NOx, NH3, and H2O, played an important role on Hg0 oxidation by metal oxides and SCR catalysts. In general, HCl, O2, NO2, and Cl2 showed enhancing oxidation of Hg0 into Hg2+, while SO2, NO, and NH3 could inhibit Hg0 oxidation , , , , , ,  and .
We carried out the purification of taurine from P. yezoensis. Taurine was isolated and purified by cation exchange chromatography after membrane filtration. The component was eluted with ultrapure water, and the elution profile is shown in Fig. 2. The taurine concentration was very low in the initial fractions, and then the taurine concentration increased sharply (from fraction number 3 to 6). The highest taurine concentration was acquired at fraction number 6, and then the taurine concentration decreased thereafter. P. yezoensis is rich in free Abiraterone acetate (such as Tau, Ala, Asp, Glu). Free amino acids in P. yezoensis extract before (A) and after (B) absorption of 732 cation resin are shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 indicates that the other main free amino acids (especially Ala) were efficiently absorbed by 732 cation resin. Taurine in P. yezoensis extract was efficiently separated and purified by 732 cation exchange resin. Crude taurine was acquired by precipitation using ethanol. The precipitate was then further purified by crystallization (for details see Section 2.4. Taurine separation and purification procedure). The yield of taurine product is 1.1 ± 0.1% (DW).
As shown in Fig. 2, decreasing the “fresh biomass × total sugar content” reduces environmental performance in most impact categories, especially with regard to the levels of FAETP, EP, and AP; meanwhile, moderate impacts were observed on GWP and TETP. This condition also increases the demand of land per FU to produce feedstock for bioethanol. Thus, the consumption of fertilizers and BAY 60-6583 in the plant cultivation unit is increased. Moreover, increased agrochemical input leads to serious nutrient and pesticide runoff to surrounding water body and atmospheric environment, which ultimately increase EP, AP, FAETP, TETP, and GWP. Using a large amount of agrochemicals corresponds to high fossil energy consumption, which decreases NER and NEG in response to reduced “fresh biomass × total sugar content.” Implementing reasonable management practices in the plant cultivation unit to alleviate salinity stress and to increase the fresh biomass and total sugar content of sweet sorghum stem is crucial to improve energy efficiency and environmental performance.
Fig. 14. Plot of average Nusselt number ratio between different RGO based hybrid mixtures and Myristoylcarnitine fluid.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 15. Plot of surface temperature against mean velocity for RGO and its hybrid mixtures at (a) x = 20D and (b) x = 40D.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 16. Plot of (a) average heat transfer coefficient and (b) average Nusselt number against mean velocity for RGO and its hybrid mixtures.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.5. Pressure drop and friction factor analysis for RGO and its hybrid complexes
Fig. 17. Plot of exothermic (a) pressure loss and (b) friction factor versus mean velocity for RGO.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 18. Plot of (a) pressure loss and (b) friction factor against mean velocity for RGO and its hybrid mixtures.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Environmental impact cost themes.AirWaterLandMaterials and energyClimate changeWater pollutionLoss of Temsirolimus and forestsRaw materialAir pollutionWater consumptionChange of landscapeWasteImpact on soilsEnergy and energy carriersFull-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
2.3. Human capital
Fagerberg has recently added to the human capital discussion in stating that it is first by practical application that education shows its value. Innovative technology and problem-solving gives a competitive edge and raises economic efficiency . Good health affects endurance and better work attendance of the work force. Pollution and degrading work environment can have negative effects on health in society as a whole and acts negatively on effective use of human resources  and .
Human capital will therefore be taken as educational background and know-how, which is plasmids manifested in capabilities to offer service and production. These can benefit society as a whole.
The carbon emissions computation for the enterprise product (such as lathe) in the case study GSK1838705A imprecise and needs further improve. It is better to consider the carbon emissions of product lifecycle. In addition, the low-carbon product multi-objective optimization design for multi-level coupled system of electromechanical product is deserved to study.
L-CPMOD is expected to be helpful for enterprise's low-carbon product optimization design.
AcknowledgmentsThis research is supported by the Innovation Fund for Technology Based Firms of China under Grant (No. 11C26212120492), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China under Grant (No. 2013AA040303) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant (No. 50975039).
Appendix A. Table A.1.
The correlation degree between module MijkMijk and performance PdPd (Wei, 2010).P1P2P3P4P5P6P7P8P9P10P11P1P2P3P4P5P6P7P8P9P10P11M11177194497944M21397741797944M11274074147474M22199474794941M11399197797997M22247014747411M12199404749914M22377441477910M12247114997941M23174177997441M12377414997941M23247104771447M13174714477499M23314019497141M13297747997999M24140411417100M13399949474944M24214401749104M13474714744701M25104744077144M14147401741710M25217977197474M14299414974911M31119419794414M14344714141497M31217409474404M21174104414471M32114714414101M21297414747794Note: MijkMijk is Meissner's corpuscles the kth module entity belonging to the jth module series belonging to the ith module type corresponding to Table A.1. For example, K223 (shaded area) is the 3rd module entity belonging to the 2nd module series belonging to 2nd module type.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSVTable A.4.